By Dana Wilkie 3/23/2015
With pregnancy discrimination claims growing at a faster rate than any other protected category, it’s critical that employers know what comments and behavior to avoid when dealing with workers who are expecting, attorney Courtney Barksdale Perez said March 23 at the Society for Human Resource Management’s 2015 Employment Law & Legislative Conference in Washington, D.C.
Barksdale Perez, a senior associate at Dallas, Texas-based Carter Scholer Arnett Hamada & Mockler PLLC, said managers should wait for workers to mention their pregnancies, instead of asking the employee first.
“You don’t approach them as a manager and say, ‘So, I noticed you’re pregnant—were you planning on coming back?’ ” advised Barksdale Perez, who spoke at a concurrent session on the conference’s opening day. “Let the employee approach you. That’s your opportunity to say ‘Congratulations! Are you familiar with our pregnancy policy?’ ”
Barksdale Perez explored the best ways to avoid liability for sex, pregnancy and caregiver discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Family and Medical Leave Act, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Barksdale Perez, who said she is pregnant with her third child, noted that pregnancy discrimination claims filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) grew by 35 percent from 1997 to 2007.
“No other area in the EEOC has grown in the last decade as fast as pregnancy discrimination,” she said.
One of the reasons for that may be that an increasing number of women are choosing to stay on the job while pregnant, and to return to work after delivering their babies, Barksdale Perez observed.
Citing U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data, she said that in 1960, the labor participation rate for mothers who were the sole or primary providers for their children was 11 percent; in 2011, it was 40 percent.
“The presence of [pregnant or parenting] women in the workplace has increased and will continue to increase,” she said. “Employers are having to adapt.”
Barksdale Perez discussed key pregnancy discrimination cases, including Young v. United Parcel Service, which is pending before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Peggy Young, a UPS driver who sometimes had to lift packages weighing up to 70 pounds, became pregnant and gave her supervisor a note from her midwife recommending that she not lift more than 20 pounds during her pregnancy. Young wanted to work at her regular job or be assigned to a light-duty position, but her request was denied. She sued UPS, alleging the company violated the PDA by failing to give her the same accommodations afforded nonpregnant workers whose physical disabilities presented them with comparable constraints. An appeals court affirmed a lower court’s decision to grant summary judgment to UPS, upholding the determination not to accommodate Young’s lifting restriction. The appeals court called the company’s accommodations policy for other workers “pregnancy-blind.”
“It’s one of those cases that may expand the definition of the PDA,” Barksdale Perez said.
Her advice for employers to help reduce the risk of liability includes avoiding assumptions and stereotypes that could translate into actionable behavior. For instance, she said, catch yourself if you tend to think that pregnant workers are less reliable than others, or less focused on career and promotions. Never ask about a pregnancy during a job interview, nor about an applicant’s plans for starting a family in the future.
Also risky, she said, is making comments to a pregnant worker, no matter how well-intentioned, such as “When are you due?” or “How long are you going to take off?”
“You may just think you’re being nice,” she said. “But those are the kinds of comments that will come back later down the road and hurt you.”
Dana Wilkie is an online editor/manager for SHRM.
Employer’s Failure to Follow Progressive Discipline Policy Allows Bias Claim to Proceed
By Jeffrey L. Rhodes 3/27/2015
An employee allegedly fired for multiple acts of misconduct can proceed with his age discrimination claim where he presented evidence that the employer had a progressive discipline policy that it applied to other employees but did not apply to him, the 1st U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled.
The employee, Addiel Soto-Feliciano (Soto), worked as the head chef for the Villa Cofresi Hotel on the beach of Rincón, Puerto Rico. The hotel was owned and operated by the Caro family, including Sandra Caro, the general manager and Soto’s second-level supervisor. Soto alleged that, at various times during his employment, Caro made statements concerning his age, including that he was too old to be working the cooking line and that the hotel was “moving up, not down.” The hotel, in contrast, claimed that Soto was counseled about being late to work and often became angry when preparing food, using profanity in the kitchen that could be heard by other staff and possibly even customers. The hotel further claimed that Soto had engaged in potential religious harassment, disparaging a Catholic waiter’s request to eat a meal without meat on Ash Wednesday. The employee complained about Soto, and Caro investigated the matter by speaking with Soto.
In addition to these alleged acts of misconduct, the hotel claimed that Soto refused an instruction to prepare a meal by his direct supervisor, and later threatened that same supervisor. He refused to speak to Caro when she conducted a final investigation of these and other incidents. At about the same time, Soto notified Caro that he had spoken with the Department of Labor concerning his rights and also complained to her brother, the finance manager, regarding her alleged ageist comments. Based on Soto’s alleged misconduct, the hotel issued him a written suspension describing his alleged misconduct, and then discharged him eight days later.
After his discharge, Soto brought claims of discrimination and retaliation under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) in federal court. During that litigation, the hotel filed a motion for summary judgment, claiming that Soto did not provide sufficient evidence of age discrimination to establish a prima facie case of discrimination and that Soto’s documented misconduct demonstrated a legitimate nondiscriminatory reason for his discharge. The court agreed and dismissed Soto’s claims based on the hotel’s summary judgment motion.
On appeal, the 1st Circuit considered the claim in light of the burden-shifting framework set forth by the U.S. Supreme Court for discrimination cases. That framework imposes a light initial burden on the plaintiff to establish only that the plaintiff is protected due to his age (over 40), that the plaintiff suffered an adverse employment action and that it occurred under circumstances supporting an inference of discrimination. The 1st Circuit found that Soto satisfied this initial burden. The burden of production then shifted to the employer to present a legitimate nondiscriminatory reason for discharge, which the hotel had satisfied with its evidence of misconduct.
The burden then returned to the plaintiff to establish pretext by showing that the reason given for termination was false and that discrimination was the real reason. Here, the 1st Circuit ruled that Soto’s evidence could show that the hotel did not fire him because of his misconduct but because of his age and his discrimination complaints. The 1st Circuit found that Soto presented evidence that the hotel had a progressive discipline policy that it applied to other employees but did not apply to him, instead taking drastic action by suspending him and then firing him. Based on this and other evidence potentially undermining the hotel’s basis for discharge, the 1st Circuit reversed the lower court, revived the claim and required it to proceed to trial.
Soto-Feliciano v. Villa Cofresi Hotels Inc., 1st Cir., No. 13-2296 (Feb. 20, 2015).
Professional Pointer: When an employee claims discrimination or harassment shortly before impending discipline, a company should carefully evaluate and investigate the employee’s claim and make sure that the impending discipline is commensurate with that administered to other employees.
By Allen Smith 4/1/2015
By now, news reports about stupid employee tweets are legion.
Take Justine Sacco’s Dec. 20, 2013, tweet before boarding a plane to Cape Town, South Africa. She tweeted, “Going to Africa. Hope I don’t get AIDS. Just kidding. I’m white!”
While she was in the air, reaction to her tweet erupted from all corners, reported The New York Times. Tens of thousands of angry tweets responded to her joke, the newspaper noted, including “one from her employer, IAC, the corporate owner of The Daily Beast, OKCupid and Vimeo: ‘This is an outrageous, offensive comment. Employee in question currently unreachable on an intl flight.’ ” Sacco later was discharged.
Then there was Rayhan Qadar, who was fired by Hargreaves Lansdown after he tweeted, “Think I just hit a cyclist. But I’m late for work so had to drive off lol,” according to Investment Week.
Discharging someone for a stupid tweet isn’t always straightforward, though. Criticizing one’s boss, for example, may not be the most brilliant move, but if the tweet is worded a certain way, it may be protected concerted activity under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA).
So what’s an employer’s next move after it becomes aware of an inappropriate tweet from an employee’s account?
Factors to Examine
Christina Stoneburner, an attorney with Fox Rothschild in Roseland, N.J., told SHRM Online that when determining whether to discipline an employee for a tweet, employers can consider several factors:
- Does the tweet disclose trade secrets or confidential proprietary business information of the employer?
- Does it reference or advocate illegal activity?
- Does it threaten physical violence against any employee of the company?
- Does it contain language that could be viewed as racist or sexist or as otherwise violating the company’s harassment policies?
- Is the tweet soliciting work for a competitor or someone other than the employer, and, if so, does that violate a restrictive covenant or conflict-of-interest policy?
- Is the tweet defamatory?
- Does the tweet disclose personal, confidential information of customers or employees, such as bank account information, Social Security numbers, attorney/client information, or health information protected by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act?
“If the answer to any of these is ‘yes,’ then an employer can discipline the employee for the tweet,” Stoneburner said.
Before handing out discipline, however, employers should conduct an investigation, most experts advise.
“Employers should verify the content of the tweet rather than relying on a report from another person,” Stoneburner said. “Employers should also print out a copy of the tweet in case the person who posted it deletes it.
“If there is some doubt as to whether the employee is the person who posted the tweet or some ambiguity in the tweet that needs to be explained, then the employer should interview the person who posted it,” she continued. “In other cases, where there is no doubt the employee posted the tweet, then there may not be a need to interview the employee before proceeding with discipline.”
But Michael Schmidt, an attorney with Cozen O’Connor in New York City, said that unless there is a situation that warrants immediate, urgent action—for example, a specific, targeted threat of violence—the employer should always conduct a reasonable investigation before taking adverse action as a result of the tweet.
He also remarked that “assuming no outright prohibition [by the law] on disciplining the employee for the tweet, the employer also may consider both the impact that the tweet has or may have on co-workers, as well as the impact on morale if the offending employee or others perceive the employer as overly regulating employee speech and expression, particularly of a more innocuous and not patently offensive message.”
Erin Dougherty Foley, an attorney with Seyfarth Shaw in Chicago, said, “An employer should generally interview the employee who is alleged to have made the offensive posting” just as it would interview the individual or individuals involved as part of any investigation into employee misconduct.
“Remember, not everything you read on the Internet is true!” she noted. “Certainly, we’ve seen situations where someone left their social media platform open and someone else put up the post, or the employee explained that her teenagers were playing with the phone and made the inappropriate comment, or that someone hacked into the employee’s account, or the Martians show made me do it—trust me, we’ve heard the excuses! I always think it’s a good idea to get the employee’s side of the story before taking any type of disciplinary action.”
Protected Concerted Activity
Schmidt observed that “Certain tweets, depending on their subject matter and actual or intended audience, may be considered protected under the NLRA because they constitute protected concerted activity or may constitute protected activity under a state’s legal activities law, in which case the employer may be limited in what it can do in response to the tweet.”
Some hallmarks of protected tweets include “tweets that criticize a boss or management in general, comment on wages or benefits, or otherwise complain or comment about work-related expectations, demands or conditions,” said Sonya Rosenberg, an attorney with Neal Gerber & Eisenberg in Chicago. “These kinds of tweets can appear offensive and inappropriate to management, but, depending on what a particular tweet actually states and who follows and comments on it and how, it may or may not be protected under the NLRA.”
She added, that the line between a protected or unprotected tweet, “can be quite apparent or quite thin, depending on the circumstances. If the tweet is legally protected, then, even if offensive to management, the employer should not discipline, at least not with respect to any portion of the tweet or follow-up that would likely be deemed to be protected under the NLRA. The remainder of the tweet, however, depending on what it states, may provide legitimate and lawful grounds for appropriate disciplinary action.”
Protected concerted activity can be any discussion of terms and conditions of employment, Stoneburner noted. She explained that “a tweet that says that the employee’s boss is an idiot, unqualified and does not pay overtime when due would certainly be a tweet that may upset the supervisor and the employer, but may also be concerted activity because of the reference to overtime.
“Of course, if the tweet is patently offensive, then that language may take it outside of the protection of the NLRA,” she added.
“Employer discipline for tweets and other social media posts of an employee illustrates the fine line between protecting the right of employees to engage in protected expression and engage in lawful activity, on the one hand, and the right of employers to conduct [their] business and protect [their] employees and other legitimate business interests,” Schmidt said. “While it is imperative that employers establish and communicate social media policies for their employees, such policies should reflect that balance and avoid many of the legal pitfalls that have been litigated thus far.”
Allen Smith, J.D., is the manager of workplace law content for SHRM. Follow him @SHRMlegaleditor.
South Carolina Human Resources Professional Appreciation Day!
by SC SHRM State Council
We are very excited to report that on Wednesday, the South Carolina Senate passed a Resolution to name March 30, 2015 as “South Carolina Human Resource Professional Appreciation Day!” This Resolution would not have been possible without the knowledge, skills, abilities, competencies, and commitment of all of our Palmetto State’s HR professionals! To celebrate this occasion, SC SHRM will be hosting four receptions across the state in the upcoming months. We will let you know the details when they are finalized. Meanwhile – celebrate! March 30 is your day!
A SENATE RESOLUTION
TO RECOGNIZE THE OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTIONS SOUTH CAROLINA’S HUMAN RESOURCE PROFESSIONALS MAKE TO OUR STATE AND TO THE BUSINESSES AND INDUSTRIES IN WHICH THEY WORK AND TO DECLARE MARCH 30, 2015, AS HUMAN RESOURCE PROFESSIONAL APPRECIATION DAY IN SOUTH CAROLINA.
Whereas, during 2014, South Carolina human resource professionals assisted their employers by hiring more than thirty-two thousand employees; and
Whereas, South Carolina human resource professionals support over two million South Carolina workers and their families by developing and administering competitive benefit and compensation programs; and
Whereas, these human resource professionals support the Palmetto State’s more than one hundred thousand private industries, as well as city, county, and state government employers, by providing quality services that include strategic planning, recruiting, and employee-management expertise; and
Whereas, further, these gifted individuals provide training and guidance for managers to promote outstanding employer-employee relations and an engaged workforce, resulting in the state’s ranking of third nationally in lowest union membership; and
Whereas, by developing training curriculum and providing employee career coaching, South Carolina human resource professionals promote employee growth and development; and
Whereas, our State’s human resource professionals work to help prepare the incoming workforce by leading the nation in recognized WorkReady Community employers; and
Whereas, through the use of valuable programs such as Operation Palmetto Employment, South Carolina human resource professionals and their employers placed over nine thousand military veterans in jobs during 2014. Now, therefore,
Be it resolved by the Senate:
That the members of the South Carolina Senate, by this resolution, recognize the outstanding contributions South Carolina’s Human Resource professionals make to our State and to the businesses and industries in which they work and to declare March 30, 2015, as Human Resource Professional Appreciation Day in South Carolina.
Be it further resolved that a copy of this resolution be provided to the South Carolina Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM) State Council.
Top 10 Mistakes in Handling I-9 Forms
By Allen Smith, 3/10/2015
Internal I-9 audits should result in documented changes in practices, not just corrections to the forms, according to Mira Mdivani, an immigration attorney in Overland Park, Kan.
In fact, she cited not understanding the difference between correcting I-9s and correcting practices leading to I-9 violations as one of the top 10 mistakes employers make in handling I-9 forms. She said employers should provide training so the same mistakes aren’t made again and that immigration compliance policies and procedures should be updated after corrections are made.
She listed the other top 10 I-9 mistakes as:
- Allowing untrained staff to administer I-9s.
- Not conducting an internal I-9 audit.
- Having untrained staff engage in the I-9 audit.
- Not supervising new employees filling out Section 1, which causes many Section 1 mistakes.
- Accepting unacceptable documents.
- Accepting fraudulent documents, such as fake lawful permanent resident or Social Security cards.
- Not recording the document title, issuing authority and expiration date or not recording the information correctly.
- Not making copies of I-9s because the employer is relying on U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services and not on U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).
- Making corrections without initializing and dating them.
Greg Berk, an attorney with Sheppard Mullin in Orange County, Calif., said employers should double-check that they and employees have filled out every field on the I-9. “The form is inherently confusing, and one should not assume that all fields were completed,” he remarked.
Another frequent error he sees is omitting the Alien Registration Number when the employee is a permanent resident.
Other common mistakes: Employees often do not sign and date Section 1, the employer frequently does not list the date of hire in Section 2 in the certification clause, and the employer often does not sign and date Section 2, he said.
Employers should not accept a restricted Social Security card that says, “Not Valid Without DHS [Department of Homeland Security] Work Authorization,” Berk cautioned.
The employer should record the I-9 expiration date for employees working on a work permit (an employment authorization document) or a work visa, but it should not keep I-9s in employees’ HR files, he said.
“The employer must reverify that the foreign national is authorized to work beyond the original expiration date by examining new work authorization documents,” said Kevin Lashus, an attorney with Jackson Lewis in Austin, Texas. “Many organizations do not have a method to track the expiration dates, and therefore fail to reverify.”
“When we discuss the Form I-9 process with clients, we recommend that they review and consider the Form I-9 checklist that ICE publishes as part of its IMAGE [ICE’s Mutual Agreement between Government and Employers] program,” said Robert Groban Jr., an attorney with Epstein Becker Green in New York City. Groban also cautioned employers not to use incorrect or outdated forms.
The most common mistake Lashus sees is timing errors.
“The most frequent mistake isn’t related to writing information down improperly—although that happens all the time—but is related to the timing of the Form I-9. Section 1 must be completed before close of business (COB) the first day of employ. Section 2 must be completed before the COB the third day after the first day of employ—e.g., if the employee is hired on Monday, Section 2 must be completed before COB Thursday. Exposure arises, when an organization misses the due dates, to the tune of $1,100,” he said.
“Note that this is business days as it relates to the employer, so if the employer is operational over the weekend, the weekend will be counted as business days,” remarked Yova Borovska, an attorney with Buchanan Ingersoll & Rooney in Tampa, Fla. “This cannot be corrected, but there is a five-year statute of limitations after which it can no longer be used against the employer.”
She noted that when a new hire will work remotely and resides far away from the company’s locations, the employer may authorize a local individual it trusts to complete the I-9 verification process. That individual becomes the employer’s agent for I-9 verification purposes; the person might be, for example, a bank representative, notary or lawyer.
“One mistake that some employers will make in this situation is to have the agent physically examine the documents but not complete Section 2. Sometimes the employer will have the agent complete a separate form or document, but the employer will complete Section 2 attesting to having examined the I-9 documents. This is incorrect. The individual who physically examined the documents must be the one signing the attestation under penalty of perjury in Section 2,” she said.
Record Retention Errors
Borovska added that “The requirements for electronic retention are very rigorous and include measures such as reasonable controls, inspection, quality assurance, audit trails, indexing [and] ability to reproduce.”
Purging forms too early sometimes occurs, she noted, in which case the I-9 forms would be treated as missing.
She explained that “the rule is that only terminated employees’ I-9s can be purged three years after hire or one year after termination, whichever is later. Sometimes employers will mistakenly purge forms for active employees, which is inappropriate.”
Borovska added that failure to retain the original form, unless electronically stored and compliant with those requirements, is also a serious error and would be treated either as a failure to produce a Form I-9 or a missing form.
Allen Smith, J.D., is the manager of workplace law content for SHRM. Follow him @SHRMlegaleditor.